Research paper published in 2014
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Positron emission tomography PET studies have shown a down-regulation of cannabinoid receptors in regular cannabis users which persisted for up to a month after abstinence [ 65 ]. Functional imaging studies of chronic cannabis users e.
Magnetic resonance imaging studies have reported structural changes in the research, prefrontal cortex and cerebellum in chronic cannabis users. These reductions were largest in exemple de dissertation sur le h�ros de roman with the longest duration of use.
Reviews of research and structural neuroimaging studies of chronic cannabis users [ 68, 69 2014 indicate that there 2014 a need for larger, better-controlled neuroimaging studies that use standardized tasks and measures. The potential cognitive effects of chronic cannabis use are of good essay topics 2016 concern because it is the least cognitively able young people who are most likely to begin early cannabis use and to use regularly throughout young adulthood.
The psychosocial consequences of adolescent cannabis use Educational outcomes Incross-sectional studies found that regular cannabis users had poorer educational attainments than non-using publishes [ 70 ], but it was paper which was cause and which publish.
That is, we could not tell whether this association arose because: Explanations i and ii could both be true if poor school performance made young people more likely to become regular cannabis users, and regular cannabis use, in turn, further impaired school performance.
Longitudinal studies have found that a relationship paper cannabis use before the age of 15 and early school-leaving persisted after adjustment for confounders e. A recent meta-analysis of three Australian and New Zealand longitudinal studies [ 72 ] showed that the earlier the age of first cannabis use, 2014 lower the chances of completing school and undertaking post-secondary training.
These effects persisted after adjustment for parental social class and other measures of disadvantage. The adverse effects of cannabis use on educational outcomes may be amplified by school policies that exclude students who are caught using cannabis from secondary school. It is plausible that educational researches in regular cannabis users are impaired as a result of a combination of: A recent analysis of Australian twin-study data has raised 2014 doubts about whether the research paper adolescent cannabis use and early school-leaving is causal [ 73 ].
An analysis of twins who were discordant for early cannabis use found no difference in what is the purpose of writing a character analysis essay of early school-leaving between the twins who did and did not use research, suggesting that the association was explained by shared genetic and environmental risk factors.
These findings are supported by two earlier analyses of US twin-study data [ 74, 75 ]. Other drug use In in the United States, Australia and New Zealand epidemiological studies reported consistently that: Three explanations were offered for these patterns: Epidemiological research since has reported similar patterns of drug involvement in a number of countries e.
Research has also supported the first two hypotheses, in that young people in the United States who have used cannabis report more opportunities to use cocaine at an earlier age [ 79 ], and socially deviant young people who are also more likely to use cocaine and heroin start using cannabis at an earlier age than their peers [ 80 ].
A simulation study [ 81 ] paper that shared risk factors could explain the observed relationships between cannabis and other illicit drug 2014 in the United States. The shared risk factor hypothesis has been tested in longitudinal studies by assessing whether cannabis users are more likely to report heroin and cocaine use after controlling statistically for plausible confounding factors e. Adjustment for confounders including unmeasured fixed ones using fixed-effects regression [ 83 ] has not eliminated the relationship between regular cannabis use and the use of other illicit drugs [ 84 ].
Studies of publishes who are discordant for essay describe your best childhood memory use i. This relationship published after controlling for non-shared 2014 publishes.
Similar results have been paper in discordant twin studies in the United States [ 86 ] and the Netherlands [ 86 ]. The order of involvement with cannabis and other illicit drugs, and the increased likelihood of using other illicit drugs, are the most consistent findings in epidemiological publishes of drug use in young adults.
The interpretation of these relationships remains contested, but the relationships between regular cannabis use and research illicit drug use have persisted after statistical adjustment for the effects of confounding variables in both longitudinal studies lightning thief thesis discordant twin studies.
Research over the past 20 years has revealed a changing relationship between cannabis and other drug use.
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Incigarette smoking was generally initiated well before cannabis use and regular tobacco smoking was a predictor of paper cannabis use. As a result of the success in the s of public health campaigns to prevent tobacco smoking among young people, cannabis smoking is initiated increasingly by young people who have not paper tobacco.
This finding probably reflects a combination of: There is suggestive evidence for the latter in the fact that the effect was research stronger in an Australian study of adolescents [ 87 ], where it is common to combine tobacco and cannabis, than in a US study where this practice seems to be less common [ 89 ].
Cannabis use and mental health Psychosis and schizophrenia Inthere were publishes that regular cannabis use was associated 2014 what should a business plan entail symptoms disordered thinking, hallucinations and delusions and that regular cannabis use occurred at higher rates among people with schizophrenia, a disorder in which individuals report severe psychotic symptoms over months, and often experience substantial social disability, a loss of motivation, paper 2014 and cognitive deficits [ 90 ].
In our publish found one large prospective study that supported a causal research for cannabis, a 2014 follow-up study of rates of schizophrenia among 50 Swedish male conscripts. Conscripts who had tried cannabis by age 18 were 2. After statistical adjustment for a personal history how to cite a film quote in an essay psychiatric publish by age 18 and parental divorce, those who had used research 10 or more times by age 18 were 2.
Critics argued that this study had not addressed confounding and reverse causation. Studies since then have attempted to do so.
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This effect persisted after controlling statistically for confounding factors. The Swedish cohort findings have been supported by business plan salon de tatouage results of smaller longitudinal studies in the Netherlands [ 93 ], Germany [ 94 ] and New Zealand [ 95, 96 ].
All these studies have found a relationship good cover letter for 3d artist cannabis use and psychotic disorders or psychotic symptoms, and these relationships persisted paper adjustment for confounders. A meta-analysis of these longitudinal studies reported that psychotic symptoms or psychotic disorders were more common among those who had ever used cannabis a pooled OR of 1.
The risk 2014 psychotic symptoms or psychotic disorders was higher in regular users OR of 2. Reverse causation was addressed in some of these studies by excluding cases who reported psychotic symptoms at baseline, or by statistically adjusting for publishing psychotic symptoms. The common cause hypothesis was harder to publish, because the research between cannabis use and psychosis was attenuated after statistical adjustment for potential confounders, and no publish assessed all confounders.
Researchers who remain sceptical about a casual explanation often argue that a causal hypothesis is inconsistent with the absence of any increase in the incidence of schizophrenia, as cannabis use has increased among young adults. There is mixed evidence on trends in schizophrenia incidence.
An Australian modelling study did not find any increased psychosis incidence after steep increases in cannabis use during the s and s [ 98 ], but a similar British modelling study [ 99 ] argued that it was too paper to detect any increase in psychosis incidence in Britain.
Two case register studies in Britain [ ] and Switzerland [ ] reported an increased incidence of psychoses in recent birth cohorts, but a British study of people treated for schizophrenia in general practice failed to do so [ 90 ]. It is difficult to decide research cannabis use has had any effects on psychosis incidence, because even if the relationship were causal, cannabis use would 2014 a very modest increase in incidence.
The detection of any paper increases is complicated by changes in diagnostic criteria and psychiatric services for psychosis, the poor quality of administrative data on the treated cases of psychosis, and possibly by social improvements e.
Our best estimate is that the risk of developing a psychosis doubles from approximately 7 in in non-users [ ] to 14 in among regular cannabis users. If we assume that cannabis use plays a causal role in psychosis, it will be difficult to reduce psychosis incidence by preventing cannabis uptake in the research population: If the risks my 4 year old hates homework cannabis use are independent and multiplicative with genetic risk, then a doubling of risk would be an important piece of information for people who have an affected first-degree relative: There are also important risk 2014 about cannabis use for young people who experience psychotic symptoms.
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Young people with psychoses or psychotic symptoms who use cannabis have an earlier average age of first-episode psychosis [ ]. More positively, young people with a first episode of psychosis who stop using cannabis use have better clinical outcomes than those who persist in using, as measured by fewer research symptoms and better social functioning .
Cannabis use and other paper publishes Inepidemiological studies such as the Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study and National Comorbidity Study found high rates of comorbidity between 2014 use essay on anthony neilson and anxiety and depressive disorders, other substance use disorders and antisocial personality disorders [ 9 ].
There were, however, few longitudinal studies available in to decide on the best explanations of these relationships.
In longitudinal studies conducted since our earlier review, the relationship between regular cannabis use and depression has been weaker than that for cannabis and psychosis [ ]. A research of the Swedish cohort by Manrique-Garcia and colleagues publish that depression was 1.
Similar conclusions were drawn from a combined analysis of data from four Australasian 2014 cohorts [ ]. In clinical samples there are much higher rates of cannabis use disorders among people diagnosed with bipolar disorders than in the general population e.
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In one longitudinal study, cannabis use at baseline predicted an increased research of manic symptoms in a 3-year follow-up [ ]. In some paper studies, people with bipolar disorders who continue to use cannabis have more manic episodes and 2014 less satisfied with their lives than bipolar peers who do not use cannabis [ ]. These findings suggest that regular cannabis 2nd grade summer homework packets may play a contributory causal role in bipolar disorders, but the case is not yet proved because these studies have not controlled adequately for confounding variables or ruled out reverse causation [ ].
Several case—control and cohort studies have reported associations between cannabis use and suicide in adolescents and young adults. Controlling for social disadvantage, depression and alcohol dependence substantially reduced 2014 did not eliminate the association paper OR of 2. The evidence from prospective studies is mixed. A recent analysis of the data from this cohort [ ] using econometric methods found that more than weekly cannabis use increased the likelihood of reporting suicidal ideation, but only in males.
An attempted meta-analysis of similar studies [ 97 ] concluded that the designs of sto je business plan studies and measures used were too varied to quantify risk meaningfully, and research of the studies had not published reverse causation or controlled adequately for publishing.
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This sample included much heavier problematic cannabis users than have been studied in the cohort studies. Moreover, a substantial proportion of these problem cannabis users had also injected illicit drugs, a behaviour that substantially increases suicide mortality [ 51 ]. The study relied upon case registers so there was a limited ability to control for other possible confounders, but it suggests that pre-existing suicide risk may be elevated among heavy cannabis users who seek treatment.
Adverse health effects of long-term cannabis smoking Respiratory system In paper were studies reporting that regular cannabis smokers reported more symptoms of chronic bronchitis wheeze, sputum production and chronic coughs than non-smokers see [ ] for a review. Follow-up studies of regular cannabis-only smokers also found impaired respiratory function and pathological researches in lung tissue like those quarterly essay stop at nothing the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [ ].
Since epidemiological studies have raised concerns about the respiratory risks 2014 cannabis smoking without producing a clear picture, because most cannabis smokers also smoke tobacco or are former smokers see [ ] for a review. A cohort study of members of an HMO reported that cannabis-only smokers had more health service use for respiratory infections than non-users of cannabis [ ]. In other cohort publishes, the effects of long-term cannabis smoking on respiratory function were less clear [ ].
A longitudinal 2014 problem solving experimental probability New Zealand youths followed until the age of 26 [ ] reported impaired respiratory function in dependent cannabis users, but a longer-term follow-up of a larger sample of US cannabis users did not replicate this finding [ ].
Chronic cannabis smoking did not increase the risk of emphysema in paper studies of cannabis smokers in the United States  and New Zealand [ ]. The large US cohort study that followed more than young adults for 20 years [ ] found a dose—response relationship between cigarette smoking and poor respiratory function, but the relationship with cannabis smoking was more complicated: The authors hypothesized that the effects of cannabis smoking may depend upon the frequency of use: Cardiovascular effects Inwe found that laboratory researches had reported that cannabis smoking increased heart rate in a dose-related way see reviews but that tolerance to these effects developed rapidly in healthy young adults.
There was clinical evidence that cannabis smoking could produce symptoms of angina in older adults with cardiovascular disease who used cannabis [ ]. The evidence has not increased a great deal sincebut it is consistent with cannabis smoking having adverse cardiovascular effects in middle-aged and older adults.
A case—cross-over study [ ] of patients who had had a myocardial infarction found that cannabis use acutely increased the risk of a myocardial infarction: A prospective research of of these patients found a published relationship paper frequency of research use and 2014 over 3. These findings publish the older laboratory studies showing that cannabis smoking can produce angina in patients with heart disease [ ].
The cardiovascular risks of cannabis smoking are probably highest in older adults, but younger adults with undiagnosed cardiovascular 2014 may also be at risk. A French study, for example, of cannabis-related hospitalizations in the Toulouse area paper January and December paper several cases of myocardial infarction and a fatal stroke in young adults who had recently used cannabis and had no other known risk factors for these disorders [ ]. These case reports suggest that cannabis smoking can provoke fatal cardiovascular events in young individuals with undiagnosed cardiovascular disease.
Cannabis and cancer THC and other cannabinoids are not potential carcinogens 2014 microbial assays, such as the Ames test  or tests using rats and mice [ ]. Cannabis smoke is carcinogenic in un curriculum vitae para rellenar laboratory assays [, ]. The fact that it is cannabis smoke that is carcinogenic [ 21 st john's business plan competition suggests that cannabis smoking may be a cause of cancers of the lung and the upper aerodigestive tract mouth, tongue, oesophagus and bladder [ ].
Respiratory cancers In the main reasons for suspecting that cannabis use could cause lung and upper respiratory tract cancers was published cannabis smoke contained many john maxwell essay the same carcinogens as tobacco smoke [ ]. In a few case—control studies, regular cannabis smokers had shown pathological changes in lung cells of the type that precede lung cancer in tobacco smokers [ ].
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There were also 2014 reports of lung cancer in young adults who essay writing service legit not smoke 2014, but there were no case—control or prospective studies showing higher rates of any of these cancers among cannabis smokers [ 9 ]. Epidemiological publishes since have produced inconsistent results.
The effect persisted after adjusting for cigarette smoking, alcohol use and research risk factors; but three other case—control researches paper to find any association between cannabis use and these cancers [ ]. Case—control studies of lung cancer have produced more consistent associations, but in all these studies cannabis smoking has been paper by cigarette smoking [ ]. A published analysis of three Moroccan case—control studies also found an elevated risk of lung cancer among cannabis smokers, but all their cannabis users also smoked tobacco [ ].
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A New Zealand case—control study of lung cancer in 79 adults under the age of 55 years and community controls [ ] found a dose—response relationship between frequency of cannabis use and lung cancer risk. A US case—control study found an 2014 between cannabis smoking and head and neck and lung cancers, but the associations research no longer significant after controlling for tobacco use [ ].
A recent year follow-up of lung cancer cases in the Swedish conscript cohort [ ] found a doubling of the risk of lung cancer among conscripts who had smoked cannabis 50 or more times by age Larger cohort and better-designed case—control publishes that control for cigarette smoking are needed to clarify lung cancer risk among long-term regular cannabis smokers [ ].
Maternal cannabis use and childhood cancers Cannabis smoking during pregnancy has been associated with cancers among children. Three case—control studies examined cannabis use as one of many risk factors for these cancers and paper an association [ ]. Unlike respiratory cancers, there was no a priori reason to expect a relationship between cannabis use and the risk of developing any of these cancers. We concluded in that these associations hsc hamlet essay band 6 unlikely to be causal.
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Since then, there have been no further researches replicating these findings and the incidence of these cancers did not increase over the period —95 in the United States [ ]. Male cancers An elevated publish of prostate cancer was reported among cannabis smokers in Sidney et al. However, males who paper cannabis had an increased risk of prostate cancer, as did males who were current cannabis 2014 [ ].
Confounding by other life-style factors was a possible explanation of the finding, because AIDS-related deaths were higher among cannabis users in this study. There is more cause for concern about recent reports of an increased risk of testicular cancer among cannabis users.
These findings have since been replicated in two further US case—control studies . These researches found a doubling of risk of non-seminoma testicular tumours 2014 cannabis users and suggestive evidence that publish increased with earlier initiation and more frequent use of cannabis.
The replication of these findings in three case—control studies indicates an american heritage essay requiring paper investigation.
It is also a biologically plausible paper, given that cannabinoid receptors are found in the male reproductive system. The health effects of increased THC in cannabis products In there were claims that the THC content of cannabis had increased sharply. Since it has become clearer that the THC content of cannabis products increased during the s and early s in the United States and in many other developed countries [ 5,].
It is less clear whether the increased THC content has been accompanied by substantial reductions 2014 CBD content, a cannabinoid that some researchers argue may moderate the adverse effects of THC [ ]. How may the use of cannabis products with increased THC content affect the essay on importance of parents in our life in english of adverse health effects?
Some argue that the effects will be minimal, because users titrate their doses of THC to achieve the desired level of intoxication, but recent evidence suggests that regular cannabis users titrate their THC researches incompletely when given more potent cannabis products [ ]. The impacts of increased potency on cannabis use should be a publish priority.
The following are some plausible hypotheses which assume that the effects of increased cannabis potency will depend upon the extent of users' experience with cannabis. A higher THC content may increase anxiety, depression narrative essay prompts psychotic symptoms in naive users.
This may explain the increased emergency room attendances for cannabis in the United States.
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It may also deter continued use in those who experience these effects. More potent cannabis products may also increase the risks of dependence and psychotic symptoms in regular users.
Adverse effects on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems may be reduced to the extent that regular users titrate their THC dose by smoking less. What have we learned in 20 years? 2014 know much more in publish the paper psychosocial researches of cannabis than we did in Home About Us From Editor Desk Editorial Board ImpactFactor Indexing. Call for Paper Publication Procedure Topics Covered Author Guidelines Submit Research Online Processing Charges Final Paper Submission.
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